In 2011 the White House via OMB issued a Memo M-11-11 that stated "Effective the beginning of FY2012, existing physical and logical access control systems
must be upgraded to use PIV credentials , in accordance with NIST guidelines, prior to the agency
using development and technology refresh funds to complete other activities." https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/memoranda/2011/m11-11.pdf. This memo, had it been followed with determination, could have mitigated risk to federal IT systems through virtually eliminating the risk of breach due to compromised credentials.