A multifaceted approach of building trust, having “skin in the game” (“AntiFragile” - Taleb), incentives and penalties for both industry and government. It has to be made in the best interest of both “parties” to share threat intelligence. This coupled with a multifaceted approach of incentives, disincentives, non attribution, etc. Then you increase the probability that sharing will occur. The incentives for government and industry differ. For example, one government agency wants industry to share and other to penalize. An industry knowing that they will be penalized is an incentive, and in this case to not share. Industry will also be penalized financially, which is their lifeline. The same is not true for government. As well as government is not incentivized and penalized appropriately, and often break their own rules and policies.